Ditch the Antibacterial: Soap is All You Need

Handwashing does not often make the news.  I’m still waiting for, “Crunchy Green Mom Caught Washing her Hands!”  But a couple years ago, handwashing was front page.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ruled against 19 super common antibacterial agents, including the ubiquitous Triclosan, that were in nearly every “antibacterial,” “antimicrobial,” or “antiseptic” hand wash.  With these ingredients banned, entire product lines had to be reformulated or else no longer sold.  What had been a huge and successful consumer market suddenly was stopped short.

The FDA oversees “articles intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment or prevention of disease” as laid out in the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938.  Since antibacterial hand washes kill germs that would otherwise make us sick, they fell under the classification of “drug.”

Prior to this ruling, it sounded like the perfect match, right?  Germs make us sick.  Antibacterial agents kill germs.  Problem solved.  Case closed.

But it wasn’t that simple.  Not that it ever is.

Triclosan and its buddies raised the ire of the federal government for one primary reason and a couple of secondary ones.  Primarily, they gave false hope.  These ingredients lulled people in to a false sense of security that if they used an “antibacterial” product, they were free from germs and immune to sickness.  It turns out, this wasn’t the case. They might, in fact, get even more sick.

The secondary reasons were found in the growing body of evidence that these antibacterial agents might also promote antibiotic-resistant superbugs, disrupt human hormones, and cause skin cancer.

The FDA was pretty nice about it.  They gave manufacturers a year to provide proof that their antibacterial products were more effective than soap and water and safe for long-term daily use.  The stakes were high.  The manufacturers had a lot of financial reason to prove their products’ claims were true.  Even so, they couldn’t do it.

Theresa M. Michele, MD, of the FDA’s Division of Nonprescription Drug Products summed up the findings in saying, “There’s no data demonstrating that these drugs provide additional protection from diseases and infections.  Using these products might give people a false sense of security.  If you use these products because you think they protect you more than soap and water, that’s not correct.”


Soap works

So why am I writing about an ingredient that has already been debunked?  Because I regularly get asked – usually by desperate parents fighting unending rounds of a stomach flu – if Dr. Bronner’s Castile Soaps or Sal Suds are antibacterial.  As you’ve likely guessed, the answer is “No.”  And they don’t need to be. Surfactants, such as Castile Soap and Sal Suds, remove germs and bacteria, as well as dirt and grease.  Again, they don’t kill.  They remove all manner of dirt and germs and grease and other ickies off of any surface.  They effectively clean counters, cutting boards, sinks, door knobs, you….  They’re like the security force that surrounds the problematic intruders and escorts them out the door – or down the drain.  Call them The Eliminators.

In contrast to soap and other surfactants, antibacterial agents kill germs, but do not remove them.  Saying it another way, they kill but do not clean.  Antibacterial hand cleansers or washes may have also contained some soap or detergent that would then remove the dead germs, but they would have removed them anyways.  The antibacterial agents were superfluous.

Then there were the secondary, but personally more eyebrow-raising, concerns about potential promotion of antibiotic-resistant superbugs, hormone disruption and cancer.  Let’s look at the first.  “Antibiotic-resistant superbugs” refer to things like STAPH and MRSA, which are infections that take a stunningly massive quantity of novel antibiotics to get rid of.

Many a bottle of antibacterial hand wash shouted, “Kills up to 99.99% germs!”  I couldn’t have stated the problem better myself.  If it kills 99.99% of germs, then it doesn’t kill .01% of germs.  And the .01% of the germs are those super-duper strong ones that aren’t easily killed.  And these super strong, hard-to-kill germs now have the playing field to themselves.  They have no other germs to compete with.  While .01% is certainly a very small number, without competition they can grow and reproduce and strengthen and do their dastardly deeds with little to get in their way.  This is not a good thing.  In fact, this is such a not-good-thing, that on its website, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) calls “antibiotic resistance… one of the biggest public health challenges of our time.”


Waterless Hand Sanitizers

You’ve perhaps noticed that I have discussed only wash-off antibacterial cleansers.  You’re very observant.

The FDA’s ruling did not apply to waterless hand sanitizers, and as of yet, they are still collecting research on the efficacy and safety of Triclosan et al in those ubiquitous gels and sprays.  However, where the FDA is yet silent, the CDC recommends, “If soap and water are not available, use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.”  The CDC goes on to state that, while still not as good as soap and water, a 60% or greater alcohol concentration is better than any other active ingredient at killing germs in a waterless situation.


Beyond hands

The antibacterial issue goes even further than hand cleanliness, though.  At the height of the antibacterial craze, which arguably is still underway, Triclosan could be found in a dizzying array of consumer goods including socks, cutting boards, sheets, makeup, deodorant, cervical collars, first aid splints, ice cream scoops, mops, underwear, shirts, shorts, pencils, binders, scissors, calculators, humidifiers, ear plugs, hockey helmets, paint, foot warmers, wallpaper, escalator handrails, air filters, towels, pet bowls, baby carriers, cart covers, vacuums, food sealers, yoga mats, coolers, grout, concrete, dog washes, horse washes, furniture, toys, and who knows what else.

Everything on this list falls outside the FDA’s jurisdiction, so we can’t look to them for a ruling on their safety.

If we are surrounded by so great a cloud of Triclosan, how much is ending up inside us?  This concern is called systemic exposure, where a substance crosses through the skin or is swallowed or inhaled and accumulates in the internal organs.  Do products that contain Triclosan shed it during use?  Does a cutting board transmit Triclosan into food?  Do sheets transmit Triclosan through the skin?  Or does any product outgas Triclosan which can then be inhaled?  There isn’t research on this yet, although the government has recommended that more be done.  In the meantime, the long-term testing continues on the consumer.  I for one will excuse myself from this test.


What to do now

As we enter the time of year where we stay indoors and breathe on each other (otherwise known as “cold and flu season”), it becomes increasingly imperative that we wash our hands with soap and water.  Early and often.  And teach our children to do the same.  Let me say this very clearly:

The single most important way to keep your kids healthy is to teach them to wash their hands well.  

This goes for surfaces around us as well.  Spraying them with a leave-on antibacterial spray (yes, I mean Lysol), or even a spray and wipe disinfectant, is not nearly as effective at removing germs, dirt, and grease with a soap and water spray.

You know those memes about things we didn’t have when we were kids?  Waterless hand sanitizer is on that list.  They came about sometime in between my childhood and my parenthood.  When I was a kid, we just had soap and water.  If our hands were dirty, we had to go to a sink and wash them.  Turns out that’s the best way after all.

44 thoughts on “Ditch the Antibacterial: Soap is All You Need

  1. Lisa, am making my own hand pump soaps for bathroom and kitchen, is there something I can add to make it a bit thicker, now it comes out like water, would like it a bit thicker. Thanks. Loving your site! Maureen

    • Hi Maureen- I’m glad you find my blog helpful! We don’t recommend using our soaps in a regular pump dispenser. Even diluted, the soap tends to clog and squirt out in unexpected directions. It works fabulously in foaming pump dispenser though. This would functionally “thicken” the soap with water and air. I recommend diluting the soap at a ratio of 1 part soap to 3 parts water. This seems to work great and doesn’t create issues with clogging that using undiluted soap would.

  2. Hi Lisa,

    Is it possible to make hand sanitizer on the go with castile soap and tea tree oil? Obviously washing hands is my first choice but wondering if that’s not an option how castile soap can help!



    • Hi SJ- Soap is only effective if it is washed off. Soap works by bonding with dirt and germs, and unless it is rinsed away with water or a damp cloth, it just sits there. So a spray-on hand sanitizer made with our soaps would not be effective. When soap and water is not available, the CDC recommends an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol. Dr. Bronner’s makes one, but it’s in such demand that it’s temporarily out of stock in our webstore. Check back soon or look for it in a natural food store in your area or online.

  3. How do I dilute Castile soap for an all purpose/ germ removing spray for my home? Do I need to spray, leave on for a certain time and then wipe off?

    • Hi Sam- There’s a lot to wrap your brain around these days, isn’t there? To help prevent the spread of germs on household surfaces, the CDC recommends a two-step process of cleaning then disinfecting. For cleaning, they are recommending a general household cleaner or detergent and water prior to the second step of disinfection. Dr. Bronner’s Castile Soaps and Sal Suds Biodegradable Cleaner can be made into a household cleaning spray by combining ¼ c. of the Castile OR 1 Tbsp. of the Sal Suds in 1 qt. of water in a spray bottle, with an optional 20 drops of Tea Tree essential oil. Detergents and soaps, including our Pure-Castile Soap and Sal Suds, work effectively by attaching to dirt, germs, and grime and rinsing them away, leaving clean surfaces behind. Dr. Bronner’s soap products are effective cleaners but are not disinfectants since they do not contain a pesticide and do not kill, but instead remove germs, dirt and grime from surfaces. Disinfectants are chemicals used on hard surfaces and are registered with the EPA. For more information on the CDC’s recommended disinfectants and more advice on household preparedness, please visit https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/home/get-your-household-ready-for-COVID-19.html.

  4. I use some of your products, and since reading some of questions, and your answers plan to order additional products.

  5. Hi Lisa,
    I’m curious about how much rinsing is necessary?
    I’ve found this article and the one where you explain the surfactant properties of soaps and detergents (https://www.lisabronner.com/sal-suds-or-castile-soap-which-one-should-you-use/) very helpful. In both cases the soap or detergent work by surrounding the germs or oil and washing them away with water. To effectively do that with household cleaning, do I need to add a rinsing step? For example, when I clean my counters, does that mean I need to rinse the counter with a wet cloth after I’ve wiped the counter down using your all-purpose spray?

    • Hi Elisa- I love how closely you’re reading my blog! If you wipe with a damp cloth after spraying, you do not need to do an additional rinsing step. The cloth will pick it up. Microfiber cloths are my go-to because they are so grabby.

  6. Hi Lisa!

    Thank you for the post! I’m sorry if you’ve answer this question before. How long does the Castile soap keep for? I see the production date on there and didn’t know if at some point it loses its effectiveness. Any word on the unscented lotion?

    • Hi Konnie- In general, we recommend using our soaps within three years of purchase. After that they may develop an off odor, but are still effective. We’re still working on an Unscented Lotion.

    • Hi Jim- Glad you liked the article. A good cleaning with soap and water replaces the need to disinfect. Soap removes the germs, so there’s nothing left to disinfect. For extra grubby situations, you can add a couple of drops of tea tree oil or scour with baking soda. The use of bleach and such contributes to antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

    • Hi Kimberly – For hand soap, the Castile soap works best in a foaming pump dispenser diluted at a ratio of 1 part soap to 3 parts water. It tends to clog and squirt out in unexpected directions in a regular pump, even if you dilute it.

  7. I couldn’t agree more with the facts in this post. My ex-husbands wife is a teacher. She’s all about the antibacterial soaps, Sanitizers, etc. My daughter became sick while at their house and she came home to me loaded up on antibiotics that wouldn’t work. She built up a tolerance to them all at the age of 6. That house always had a sick person in it. I insisted on keeping our daughter for two full weeks. I kept her organic the entire time. What do you know! She became healthy again and she stayed that way. She’s now 27 and never gets sick. She’s a nurse so she is exposed to every germ known.
    Great post. Thanks for sharing.

  8. Hi Lisa, I was wondering if this includes the all purpose spray that I make using Sal Suds and tea tree oil? Should we limit the use of tea tree oil and other oils too because it will over kill the bacteria? Thank you.

    • Hi Andy – That’s a good question! Tea tree oil does have microbial properties, as well as being a great skin balancer. But it’s not strong enough to work alone, which is why it should be added to soap. The soap is needed though to eliminate the bad stuff, and tea tree oil is a natural way to give it a little extra boost. The good news is that tea tree has not shown to contribute to antibiotic resistance. Although too high of a concentration of tea tree oil and it will burn you. Just 10-20 drops in a quart of Sal Suds or Castile soap All-Purpose Spray is all you need.

  9. Since becoming sensitized to Triclosan and Methylisothiozolinone 7 years ago, I’ve trusted all of Dr. Bronner products. My skin looked blistered and raw from the allergy to these chemicals, not to mention the itching. Flare ups do happen due to air fresheners and sprays but at least it is somewhat manageable.
    Thank you for a trustworthy product, I recommend it to everyone.

    • Hi Michelle – I’m so sorry you had to go through that, but happy to hear you found a solution in Dr. Bronner’s.

  10. Wonderful and informative article, Lisa!! Thank you! I will share this with friends! In the meantime, I still use your lavender scented hand sanitizer until I reach soap and water. Keep us posted! I love your writing!!!

  11. Thanks for the info – I had no idea triclosan was in so many things! Are products like furniture, cutting boards, toys, etc. that contain triclosan required to label their products as such? If not, is there any reasonable way to identify and avoid such products? Thank you!

    • Hi Joy- No, there is no requirement that cutting boards, coolers, sheets and such be labeled has having triclosan. If an item is labeled as microbial, we as consumers, can assume that it contains triclosan or a similar ingredient.

  12. I work at a nursing home as a housekeeper and they expect us to use their harsh liquid sanitizer soap that surgeons use before gloving, and then sanitised before entering and gloving, then remove our gloves, wash with the surgeon hand soap AND use the hand sanitizer again on the way out. My hands look like hamburger as my cuticle are crispy, I have fine cracks in my fingertips, fine lines of hand cracks that bleed, and sore hands from all of this skin injuries caused by constant use of hand sanitizer and strong chemical liquid soaps. Not only are the .01 of germs left on my skin, they fall into my open skin cracks that bleed. Housekeepers seem to always get sick and the management says it is because we do not use their sanitizer enough, I have always said that it is because we use them to much. This article makes me understand that I am correct. Thank you.

    • Hi Kathleen – Frequent hand washing and hand sanitizers can most certainly do a number on one’s hands. You might want to try the Unscented Magic Balm to help heal and protect your hands. I’ve even used our Unscented Lip Balm on my cuticles in a pinch, and those fit easily into a pocket.

  13. Wow Lisa Bronner, this piece is not only timely and important, it’s also extremely well written. Thank you for that. It’s one thing to plow through an important article because you need the content. It’s quite another to enjoy the ride because the writing delivers the information with style and focus. Now I have to get another spray bottle for wiping down my counters with sal suds and water. Bravo!

  14. What about essential oil hand sanitizer, such as Doterra’s Onguard or Young Living’s Thieves? Are these sanitizers better to use than the typical store bought alcohol included hand sanitizers? I alway prefer soap and water handwashing, but when out and about and not able to do so, do you think this type of sanitizer is better than the other?

    • Hi Hannah – The key to an on-the-go hand sanitizer is that it be alcohol-based and contain at least 60% alcohol to effectively kill germs when soap and water are not available. I am not familiar with the ingredients in those products, but if they have that alcohol content, they should be effective. My go-to hand sanitizer is – no surprise here! – the Dr. Bronner’s Hand Sanitizer which contains 62% organic fair trade alcohol, organic glycerin, water and organic lavender essential oil.

    • Love Dr. Bronner’s Lavender hand sanitizer – smells sinful. Highly recommend it! I keep one in my purse and one in each car (always use it at the pump after filling up the car with gas).

      Usually, I trust non-conventional medicine, social and environmental responsible information to make more informed decisions on things. From the beginning, it was a “no” on antibacterial stuff. Those manufacturers have sure made lots of money.

      “Recent studies indicate that triclosan is commonly found in breast milk, urine, and plasma and has been flagged for concern over endocrine disruptor properties in low doses, particularly thyroid hormone and possibly reproductive functioning. Most healthcare settings have now abandoned the use of triclosan and instead use alcohol-based hand sanitizers.” I learned this during an online environmental medicine class at the University of Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine.

      Great article Lisa Bronner!

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